Investigators say the man walked up to the customer service desk at the WinCo store on West State Street and Horseshoe Bend Road at the front of the store and asked to be given all of the cash in the till.
The man, who was seen on store surveillance video, repeated the request but, when a second employee approached, he turned and left the store without money.
The man left the area in a smaller, black SUV.
Police searched for the suspect, identified as Nikolas Nikolish, 34, for several hours but made an arrest Tuesday evening.
Police found Nikolish and the same SUV seen leaving WinCo after the attempted robbery at the man's home in the 5100 hundred block of Fairmont in Boise.
The 34-year-old was taken into custody just after 7 p.m. without incident. He will be booked into the Ada County Jail on a charge of attempted robbery. He is expected to be arraigned on the charges Wednesday afternoon in district court.